CE: 1887 CF: cag122192228
Efficient microorganisms, functional properties and agricultural applications
Microorganismos eficientes, propiedades funcionales y aplicaciones agrícolas
MariuxiTania Morocho1, Michel Leiva-Mora2
1 Facultad de Zootecnia, Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo (ESPOCH), Apartado Postal EC060155, Riobamba, Ecuador
2 Laboratorio de Fitopatología, Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo (ESPOCH), Apartado Postal EC060155, Riobamba, Ecuador
Clean agricultural production system currently is a priority in the agricultural development programs of several countries. The efficient microorganisms (EM) since the 80s thanks to research of the scientist Teruo Higa, professor of horticulture at the University of Ryukyus in Okinawa, Japan. He proved EM is an efficient and sustainable alternative in the production of food. The aim of this work is to develop and summarize part of published information in the last 10 years related with EM, their functional properties and agricultura applications. EM is a group of great microbial diversity among which: lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, yeasts, actinomycetes and filamentous fungi with fermentative capacity are distinguished. From an agricultural point of view, EM promotes the germination of seeds, flowering, growth and development of fruits and allows a more successful reproduction in plants. Additionally, it has been shown that they improve the physical structure of soils, increase their chemical fertility and suppress several plant pathogenic agents that cause diseases in numerous crops. From a physiological point of view, it has been determined that EM increases the photosynthetic capacity of crops, as well as up take of water and nutrients. Application of EM improves quality and reduces the maturation times of organic fertilizers, particularly compost. All these aspects explain the increase in agricultural yield and the widespread use of EMs as well as products derived from them such as bioles.